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10-K
TERRAFORM POWER, INC. filed this Form 10-K on 03/15/2019
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agreements) is recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining contract term. The current period amortization for favorable rate revenue contracts is reflected as a reduction to operating revenues, net, and amortization for unfavorable rate revenue contracts is reflected as an increase to operating revenues, net. There was no impact related to the adoption of Topic 606 on the amortization of favorable and unfavorable rate revenue contracts. See Note 8. Intangible Assets, Net.

Solar and Wind Incentive Revenue

The Company generates incentive revenue from individual incentive agreements relating to the sale of RECs and performance-based incentives to third-party customers that are not bundled with the underlying energy output. The majority of individual REC sales reflect a fixed quantity, fixed price structure over a specified term. The Company views REC products in these arrangements as distinct performance obligations satisfied at a point in time. Since the REC products delivered to the customer are not linked to the underlying generation of a specified facility, these RECs are now recognized into revenue when delivered and invoiced under Topic 606. This was a change from the Company’s prior year accounting policy which recognized REC sales upon underlying electricity generation. The impact of the adoption resulted in a decrease in operating revenues, net of $3.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2018. Incentive revenues yet to be earned for fixed price incentive contracts are expected to be $61.1 million and recognized between 2019 and 2031. The Company typically receives payment within 30 days of invoiced REC revenue.

For certain incentive contract arrangements, the quantity delivered to the customer is linked to a specific facility. Similar to PPA revenues under Topic 606, the pattern of revenue recognition for these incentive arrangements is recognized over time coinciding with the underlying revenue generation which is consistent with the Company’s policy prior to the adoption of Topic 606. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company’s incentive revenue from facility-linked contracts with customers was $28.9 million. Revenue accruals for facility linked incentive contracts within accounts receivable, net were $3.1 million as of December 31, 2018. The Company applied the practical expedient in Topic 606 to its variable consideration incentive contract arrangements where revenues are linked to the underlying generation of the renewable energy facilities, and accordingly does not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts for which it recognizes revenue at the amount to which it has the right to invoice for services performed.

Deferred Revenue

Deferred revenue primarily consists of upfront incentives or subsidies received from various state governmental jurisdictions for operating certain of the Company's renewable energy facilities. Prior to the adoption of Topic 606, the Company deferred sales of ITCs through its lease pass-through fund arrangements as a deferred revenue liability in the consolidated balance sheets. The Company now recognizes revenue related to the sales of ITCs at the point in time when the related solar energy systems are placed in service. The Company concluded that the likelihood of a recapture event related to these assessments is remote. Under Topic 605, the Company would have recognized an increase of $16.3 million in non-cash deferred revenue within operating revenues, net for the year ended December 31, 2018. The remaining deferred revenue balance in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018, consisted of upfront government incentives of $8.8 million and contract liabilities of $4.9 million related to performance obligations that have not yet been satisfied. These contract liabilities represent advanced customer receipts primarily related to future REC deliveries that are recognized into revenue under Topic 606. The amount of revenue recognized during the year ended December 31, 2018 related to contract liabilities was $1.3 million.

Prior to the adoption of Topic 606, deferred revenue was recognized on a straight-line basis over the depreciable life of the renewable energy facility or upon the contingency of claw-back of the tax credits resolve as the Company fulfills its obligation to operate these renewable energy facilities. Recognition of deferred revenue was $18.2 million and $16.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. See Note 3. Revenue for additional disclosures.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the liability method, which requires it to use the asset and liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes and provide deferred income taxes for all significant temporary differences.

The Company reports certain of its revenues and expenses differently for financial statement purposes than for income tax return purposes, resulting in temporary and permanent differences between the Company's financial statements and income tax returns. The tax effects of such temporary differences are recorded as either deferred income tax assets or deferred income


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