uncertainty. Economic uncertainty impacting us and our operations and investments could be exacerbated by near-term political events, including those in the markets in which we operate and elsewhere.
Our business is subject to substantial governmental regulation and may be adversely affected by changes in laws or regulations, as well as liability under, or any future inability to comply with, existing or future regulations or other legal requirements.
Our business is subject to extensive federal, state and local laws in the U.S. and regulations in the foreign countries in which we operate. Compliance with the requirements under these various regulatory regimes may cause us to incur significant costs, and failure to comply with such requirements could result in the shutdown of the non-complying facility or, the imposition of liens, fines and/or civil or criminal liability.
With the exception of certain of our utility scale plants, our renewable energy facilities located in the United States in our portfolio are QFs as defined under PURPA. Depending upon the power production capacity of the facility in question, our QFs and their immediate project company owners may be entitled to various exemptions from ratemaking and certain other regulatory provisions of the FPA, from the books and records access provisions of PUHCA, and from state organizational and financial regulation of electric utilities.
The immediate owners of certain of our utility scale plants are EWGs, as defined under PUHCA, which exempts each EWG and us (for purposes of our ownership of each such company) from the federal books and access provisions of PUHCA. Certain of the EWGs also own QFs. EWGs are often subject to regulation for most purposes as “public utilities” under the FPA, including regulation of their rates and their issuances of securities. Each of our EWGs (except Evergreen Gen Lead, LLC) has obtained “market based rate authorization” and associated blanket authorizations and waivers from FERC under the FPA, which allows it to sell electricity, capacity and ancillary services at wholesale at negotiated, market based rates, instead of cost-of-service rates, as well as waivers of, and blanket authorizations under, certain FERC regulations that are commonly granted to market based rate sellers, including blanket authorizations to issue securities.
The failure of our QFs to maintain QF status may result in their and their owners becoming subject to significant additional regulatory requirements. In addition, the failure of the EWGs, or our QFs to comply with applicable regulatory requirements may result in the imposition of civil penalties or other sanctions.
In particular, the EWGs, and any project companies that own or operate our QFs that obtain market based rate authority from FERC under the FPA are subject to certain market behavior and anti-manipulation rules as established and enforced by FERC, and if they are determined to have violated those rules, will be subject to potential disgorgement of profits associated with the violation, penalties, and suspension or revocation of their market-based rate authority. If such entities were to lose their market-based rate authority, they would be required to obtain FERC’s acceptance of a cost-of-service rate schedule for wholesale sales of electric energy, capacity and ancillary services and could become subject to significant accounting, record-keeping, and reporting requirements that are imposed on FERC regulated public utilities with cost-based rate schedules.
Substantially all of our assets are also subject to the rules and regulations applicable to power generators generally, in particular the NERC Reliability Standards or similar standards in jurisdictions in which we operate. If we fail to comply with these mandatory Reliability Standards, we could be subject to sanctions, including substantial monetary penalties, increased compliance obligations and disconnection from the grid.
The regulatory environment for electricity generation in the United States has undergone significant changes in the last several years due to state and federal policies affecting the wholesale and retail power markets and the creation of incentives for the addition of large amounts of new renewable energy generation and demand response resources. These changes are ongoing and we cannot predict the ultimate effect that the changing regulatory environment will have on our business. In addition, in some of these markets, interested parties have proposed material market design changes, as well as made proposals to re-regulate the markets or require divestiture of power generation assets by asset owners or operators to reduce their market share. If competitive restructuring of the power markets is reversed, discontinued or delayed, our business prospects and financial results could be negatively impacted.
Revenues in our solar and wind assets in Spain are mainly defined by regulation and some of the parameters defining the remuneration are subject to review every three and six years.
In 2013, the Spanish government modified regulations applicable to renewable energy assets, including solar and wind power. According to Royal Decree 413/2014, renewable electricity producers in Spain receive: (i) the pool price for the power they produce and (ii) a return on investment payment based on the standard investment cost for each type of plant (without any