In determining fair value measurements, the Company maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs. Assets and liabilities are categorized within a fair value hierarchy based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2: Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; or
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair values of the assets or liabilities.
The Company maintains various financial instruments recorded at cost in the consolidated balance sheets that are not required to be recorded at fair value. For cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities and due to affiliates, net, the carrying amount approximates fair value because of the short-term maturity of the instruments. See Note 13. Fair Value of Financial Instruments for disclosures related to the fair value of the Company's derivative instruments and long-term debt.
The Company's reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. Certain of the Company's subsidiaries maintain their records in local currencies other than the U.S. dollar, which are their functional currencies. When a subsidiary’s local currency is considered its functional currency, the Company translates its assets and liabilities to U.S. dollars using exchange rates in effect at date of the financial statements and its revenue and expense accounts to U.S. dollars at average exchange rates for the period. Cumulative translation adjustments are reported in AOCI in stockholders’ equity. Cumulative translation adjustments are reclassified from AOCI to earnings only when realized upon sale or upon complete or substantially complete liquidation of an investment in a foreign subsidiary. Transaction gains and losses and changes in fair value of the Company's foreign exchange derivative contracts not accounted for under hedge accounting are included in results of operations as recognized. (Gain) loss on foreign currency exchange, net was $(11.0) million, $(6.1) million and $13.0 million during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, as reported in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company accounts for its business combinations by recognizing in the financial statements the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interests in the acquiree at fair value at the acquisition date. The Company also recognizes and measures the goodwill acquired or a gain from a bargain purchase in the business combination and determines what information to disclose to enable users of an entity's financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business combination. In addition, acquisition costs related to business combinations are expensed as incurred.
When the Company acquires renewable energy facilities, the purchase price is allocated to (i) the acquired tangible assets and liabilities assumed, primarily consisting of land, plant and long-term debt, (ii) the identified intangible assets and liabilities, primarily consisting of the value of favorable and unfavorable rate PPAs, REC agreements, the concessions and licensing contracts and in-place value of market rate PPAs, (iii) non-controlling interests, and (iv) other working capital items based in each case on their fair values. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.
The Company generally uses independent appraisers to assist with the estimates and methodologies used such as a replacement cost approach, or an income approach or excess earnings approach. Factors considered by the Company in its analysis include considering current market conditions and costs to construct similar facilities. The Company also considers information obtained about each facility as a result of its pre-acquisition due diligence in estimating the fair value of the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities acquired or assumed. In estimating the fair value the Company also establishes estimates of energy production, current in-place and market power purchase rates, tax credit arrangements and operating and maintenance costs. A change in any of the assumptions above, which are subjective, could have a significant impact on the results of operations.