Non-controlling Interests and Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value (“HLBV”)
Non-controlling interests represent the portion of net assets in consolidated entities that are not owned by the Company and are reported as a component of equity in the consolidated balance sheets. Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries that are redeemable either at the option of the holder or at fixed and determinable prices at certain dates in the future are classified as redeemable non-controlling interests in subsidiaries between liabilities and stockholders' equity in the consolidated balance sheets. Redeemable non-controlling interests that are currently redeemable or redeemable after the passage of time are adjusted to their redemption value as changes occur. The Company applies the guidance in ASC 810-10 along with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) guidance in ASC 480-10-S99-3A in the valuation of redeemable non-controlling interests.
The Company has determined the allocation of economics between the controlling party and the third party for non-controlling interests does not correspond to ownership percentages for certain of its consolidated subsidiaries. In order to reflect the substantive profit sharing arrangements, the Company has determined that the appropriate methodology for determining the value of non-controlling interests is a balance sheet approach using the HLBV method. Under the HLBV method, the amounts reported as non-controlling interest on the consolidated balance sheets represent the amounts the third party investors could hypothetically receive at each balance sheet reporting date based on the liquidation provisions of the respective operating partnership agreements. HLBV assumes that the proceeds available for distribution are equivalent to the unadjusted, stand-alone net assets of each respective partnership, as determined under U.S. GAAP. The third party non-controlling interests in the consolidated statements of operations and statements of comprehensive loss are determined based on the difference in the carrying amounts of non-controlling interests on the consolidated balance sheets between reporting dates, adjusted for any capital transactions between the Company and third party investors that occurred during the respective period.
Where, prior to the commencement of operating activities for a respective renewable energy facility, HLBV results in an immediate change in the carrying value of non-controlling interests on the consolidated balance sheets due to the recognition of ITCs or other adjustments as required by the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, the Company defers the recognition of the respective adjustments and recognizes the adjustments in non-controlling interest on the consolidated statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the expected life of the underlying assets giving rise to the respective difference. Similarly, where the Company has acquired a controlling interest in a partnership and there is a resulting difference between the initial fair value of non-controlling interest and the value of non-controlling interest as measured using HLBV, the Company initially records non-controlling interests at fair value and amortizes the resulting difference over the remaining life of the underlying assets.
The Company is involved in conditions, situations or circumstances in the ordinary course of business with possible gain or loss contingencies that will ultimately be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. If some amount within a range of loss appears at the time to be a better estimate than any other amount within the range, that amount will be accrued. When no amount within the range is a better estimate than any other amount, the minimum amount in the range will be accrued. The Company continually evaluates uncertainties associated with loss contingencies and records a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to the issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements; and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs are expensed when incurred. Gain contingencies are not recorded until realized or realizable.
Derivative Financial Instruments
Adoption of ASU 2017-12
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. This ASU amends the hedge accounting model to enable entities to better portray the economics of their risk management activities in the financial statements and simplifies the application of hedge accounting in certain situations. ASU No. 2017-12 is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. ASU 2017-12 requires a modified retrospective transition method in which the Company recognizes the cumulative effect of the change on the opening balance of each affected component of equity as of the date of adoption. The Company adopted ASU 2017-12 on March 26, 2018 with the adoption impact reflected on a modified retrospective basis as of January 1, 2018, which resulted in the following primary changes: